Poor diets are a primary cause of malnutrition and the leading cause of diseases worldwide. Improving diets, including increasing fruit and vegetable intake, could save one in five lives lost annually. Micronutrients and dietary fiber are essential for health; micronutrients obtained from fruit and vegetables have a lower environmental footprint than from other foods, making fruit and vegetables essential to healthy and sustainable diets. Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is far below recommended levels, however, the extent and nature of the problem is poorly understood due to insufficient dietary data, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
Increasing fruit and vegetable intake will require starting with consumers, understanding dietary patterns, and addressing desirability, accessibility, affordability, and availability barriers through cost-effective solutions. Solutions must take a holistic end-to-end approach that starts from intake and works back through the food system to improve accessibility of fruits and vegetables and increase year-round supply of a diverse range of safe, affordable, nutrient-dense vegetables.
FRESH (Fruits and Vegetables for Sustainable Healthy Diets), a recently launched One CGIAR Initiative, will use an end-to-end approach to increase fruits and vegetables intake, improve diet quality, nutrition and health while also improving livelihoods, empowering women and youth, and mitigating negative environmental impacts.
Under FRESH, IFPRI will develop and implement a survey to understand fruits and vegetables consumption, production, and sales in two regions in Tanzania. The survey will include a household census in primary sampling units (villages), and interviews with households (where the household may include adolescent members, pregnant and lactating women, and primary school-aged children), community retailers and traders, and key informants in selected primary sampling units (villages). The survey firm will collaborate with IFPRI to collect baseline data for this project in June-August 2023.
Overview of surveys
The survey will be conducted in the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania between June and August 2023. Data will be collected at the village/community level, household level, and vendor/retailer level using pre-tested questionnaires and survey instruments. The survey will consist of a household listing in eligible villages, household surveys of sampled households, community-level surveys, and food environment surveys.
In the community/village, data collection will entail listing of households, collecting community-level data from key informants, and collecting food environment data from key informants and/or vendors/retailers. Key informants will include the village head who can assist enumerators with identifying village demographic structure, infrastructure, employment characteristics, access to facilities, water tables, distance to markets, quality of power supplies, and the local food environment. In case the person cannot answer specific questions, he/she may be assisted by others in the village who have the relevant information.
For the household survey, we will sample households from the household listing. Respondents will include the main member responsible for agricultural decisions and practices (male or female) and the main member responsible for food preparation and food purchase (male or female). For a sub-sample of households, respondents may include adolescents and primary school-aged children. The sample is expected to include ~8,000 households. The final sampling approach and eligibility criteria of households will be determined by IFPRI.
The collaborator will coordinate the survey work that will be conducted as part of the project. The collaborator will make payments and provide all necessary supplies and services for survey preparations, data collection, and data processing for the study. This will include the following:
A. Survey preparation
i.Provide experienced enumeratorsandsupervisorsasrequiredtocarryouthousehold census, household interviews, community-level interviews with key informants, and food environment assessment survey inlocations that are selected bytheIFPRIresearchersand theCollaborator. To this extent the collaborator will organize the selection, hiring, and payment of enumerators.
a.Developing standard operating procedures, protocols, and manuals for conducting enumerator training and data collection. All documents should be prepared prior to enumerator training, in English and translated in Swahili. These documents will serve as the basis for quality assurance of the data collection process. The Collaborator will develop SOPs, manuals, and protocols with assistance from the IFPRI team.
b.Obtaining local IRB, including approval andappropriate clearance/authorization documents to conduct fieldwork.
d.Pre-testingthesurveyquestionnaires. The data will be collected via Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). IFPRI will develop the CAPI data entry programs for the different types of interviews. The Collaborator will test and finalize (in consultation with IFPRI) the data entry programs for all interview types.
e.Facilitate enumerator training in collaboration with IFPRI staff.
iii.Develop a field schedule for the data collection team, which should include contact details for the field managers and supervisors so that IFPRI can conduct field visits.
B. Data collection and data entry
i.Conduct listing of households in all survey areas which will include, at a minimum, information on the number and age of all household members, and whether the household is engaged in agricultural activities.
ii.Conduct a household survey with individuals sampled from the household listing mentioned in (i) above. The sampling criteria will be determined in consultation with IFPRI.
iii.Conduct a community level survey with key informants in all survey areas participating in the household listing. Conduct a food environment assessment survey in all survey areas participating in the household listing.
iv.Document in appropriate detail and keep records of field activities. Field activity records should be developed to update the number of eligible households interviewed.
v.Assure data quality through ensuring availability of well-trained field supervisors and regular field visits to conduct quality checks, assure data quality and completeness, and adequate progress with the survey.
vi.Share weekly progress of data collection and data entry (electronically).
vii.Share data generated from CAPI with IFPRI every 2 weeks during data collection.
C. Data cleaning
i.Ensure data completeness and validity.
ii.Prepare all household listing, household interview, key informant interview, and food environment datasets with variable labels and value labels in English following naming and labeling convention provided by IFPRI.
iii.Provide responses to queries from IFPRI in relation to data processing or cleaning, as needed.
iv.Provide a baseline data collection report including data collection, management, and cleaning process.
Timeline of activities
The proposed timetable for the work is as below:
|Survey preparation, translation of questionnaires from English to Swahili, support of IRB submission, development of manuals and protocols, and CAPI pretesting||April-May 2023|
|Recruit and train enumerators for household listing, household survey, key informant survey, and food environment survey||May-June 2023|
|Enumerator training and pretest||June 2023|
|Complete household listing||June 2023|
|Complete community-level interviews with key informants||June-July 2023|
|Complete household surveys||June-August 2023|
|Complete food environment assessment||June-August 2023|
|Submit clean and documented datasets to IFPRI||September 31, 2023|
|Submit final report on baseline data collection and financial reports to IFPRI||October 31, 2023|
·Company, NGO, or organization with proven professional experience in leading large-scale household data collection in Tanzania.
·Track record of submitting deliverables on time.
·Experience working with international and national researchers or research organizations.
·Experience in building trusting and cordial relationships with local authorities, community leaders, and respondents.
·Excellent communication skills in English.
·Experience conducting fieldwork while observing preventive measures to limit the spread of COVID-19.
The following items must be included in the application:
·A presentation of the firm and previous experience in conducting quantitative studies
·Detailed CV of people who will be involved in the study